Note: The APA Citation Style is generally used for psychology, social sciences, and health disciplines. Please check with your instructors which style to use in your assignments
What is an In-Text Citation?
In-text citations are short references that lead the readers to the Reference List entries for the sources you have used in your research paper. The signal word/phrase that you use in the text must match the first thing that appears on the corresponding entry on the Reference List.
In APA, the author's or authors' last name(s) and the year of publication from which the summary or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text and a complete reference should appear on your Reference List page. If the in-text is a direct quotation, you must include the page number(s) in addition to the author(s) and year of publication.
When you quote a source, you include the author's exact words in your text. Use "quotation marks" around the author's words or create a block text for long quotations. Include signal phrases and an in-text citation to show where the quote is from.
Paraphrasing & Summarizing Sources
When you paraphrase or summarize a source, you restate the source's ideas in your own words and sentence structure. Select what is relevant to your topic, and restate only that. Changing only a few words is not sufficient in paraphrasing/ summarizing. Instead, you need to completely rephrase the author's ideas in your own words. You do not need to use quotation marks.
Always use in-text citations when you paraphrase or summarize, to let the reader know that the information comes from another source. Continue to use signal phrases as well.
Signal phrases let your reader know that you are quoting or summarizing from another source.
Narrative citation when the author's name is included in your text:
Page numbers are for optional for in-text citations that do not include a quotation.
Format for parenthetical citation when the author's name is not included in your text:
Use last names only. Add an "&" before the second name.
In et al., et should not be followed by a period. Only al should be followed by a period.
When there is no author listed or identified as specifically as Anonymous, include only the title and the year of publication in the in-text citation. If Anonymous is used, put that as author. If the title of an unknown book is not italicized in the reference list, then put double quotation marks around the title in the in-text citation. Magazine and news articles are also put in double quotes.
When the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.
To cite a specific part of a source, provide an author-date citation for the work plus information about the specific part such as pages, sections, tables, slides, etc.
Some guidelines for the list of references at the end of your paper:
Books with no author given:
Title of book. (Year). Publisher.
Books or e-books with one author:
Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year). Title of book. Publisher.
Books with two authors:
Last Name, First Initial(s), & Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year). Title of book. Publisher.
Books with more than two authors:
APA now requires listing up to 20 authors for a source in the references list. For works with more than 20 authors, list the first 19, insert an ellipsis (…) point, and then list the last author's name.
Books with an editor:
Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of book. Publisher.
Books with edition or volume number:
E-books from a website with a DOI:
If the URL or DOI in your citation needs to be put on more than one line of text, do not add a hyphen. Do not add a period at the end of the URL or DOI. A shortened URL or DOI (e.g., tiny URL) is accepted if it takes the reader to the exact source. For e-books, the format, platform, or device (e.g., Kindle) is not included in the reference.
Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year). Title of book. Retrieved Month Day, Year DOI or URL (If no DOI, use URL)
E-book from a database:
The database name is not required. If a DOI is available, use that. Include the database name only if your instructor requires it.
E-book with no DOI and a non-database URL:
Articles by 2-20 Authors:
Use an ampersand(&) before the final author's name. Include a DOI if it is available. For articles with article numbers, include the article number instead of the page range.
Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of Publication, Vol(issue), Page(s). https://doi.org/xxxxx
Articles by 21 or more Authors:
List the first nineteen authors, then put an ellipsis (. . .) before the final author’s name, but no ampersand.
Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Page(s).
Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, Page(s).
If you reference an entire Web site (not a specific part of or document on the site), only give the address (URL) in the text. No entry is needed in the Reference list.
Citing web pages:
Last Name, First Initial(s). Year, Month Day). Title of document. Site Name. URL
Only cite content that can't be accessed anywhere else.
User Name [twitter handle]. (Year, Month Day). First 20 words of tweet [image or video] [Tweet]. URL
User Name [handle]. (Year, Month Day). First 20 words of post [image or video]. URL
Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Platform. URL
DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)
The DSM-5 Online is available through MC Library's database collection (MC login required off-campus). To cite, use the DOI for the section being referred to - individual chapters and other parts of DSM-5 have been assigned DOIs. Put the DOI in the publisher position. (See the supplemental information for more detail.)