Chicago is an editorial and citation style commonly used by book and journal publishers and is used in both humanities and science disciplines. It presents two basic documentation systems:
Sources are cited in the text using the author's last name, the publication date of the work cited, and a page number if needed. When citing the same work more than once in a row, include only the page number after the first time the publication is mentioned.
Full citations are listed at the end of the paper.
Citations are provided in footnotes or endnotes. The notes are numbered using superscripts in the text, beginning with 1, and listed consecutively.
Full citations are listed at the bottom of a page (for footnotes) or at the end of a paper (for endnotes).
In addition to footnotes/endnotes, the Chicago Style guide recommends summarizing sources in a full bibliography at the end of the paper (see below for an example).
All papers formatted in Chicago Style can include a list of references at the end of the paper, in alphabetical order.
Here is a portion of a References/Bibliography page formatted in Chicago Style:
If there are multiple authors, list them all in the Reference/Bibliography section.
The presence of a URL indicates that the book was accessed online.
List all authors. If an article was accessed online, include the DOI with a web link.
Newspapers, magazines, and journal articles are formatted the same way. Include the full date of publication for a newspaper article, if it is available.
Include the author names. If no author is listed, then start with the title of the page or site. Include the publication date, if it is available. If no publication date is available, list the date that the content was accessed.
Include the user's full name and social media handle. If there is no title, list the starting words of the post.
If no author name is available, start with the title of the video/streaming media.